Professor Hon Ki TSANG
Department of Electronic Engineering
BA, Ph.D.(
Email: hktsang@ee.cuhk.edu.hk
Telephone: +852 39438276
Hon Ki Tsang is a Professor at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. He served as Chairman of the Department of Electronic Engineering from 20102016. He is currently Director of the Center for Advanced Research in Photonics and Associate Dean (Research) of the Faculty of Engineering. He is the current EditorinChief of IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics. He is a Fellow of IEEE and a Fellow of Optica (Optica was formerly the Optical Society (OSA)).
Research Interests
Hon Tsang
obtained a PhD from Cambridge University on IIIV semiconductor waveguides devices
and their nonlinear optical properties in 1991. He joined CUHK in 1993 and shortly
thereafter branched out into the then emerging field of silicon
photonics. From its small beginnings attracting interest from only a handful of
groups, silicon photonics has grown in the last 20 years to become a mainstream
technology for high speed energy efficient
communications. It is emerging as a
key technology for optical interconnects in data centers, with large volume
silicon photonic products being manufactured by companies such as Intel.
Despite
the commercial silicon photonics transceiver products now being widely
available, silicon photonics still remains a fruitful topic for research
because there remains many important potential future applications as energy efficient onchip
optical interconnects in high performance computers, low cost labonachip gas
sensors and integrated biosensors, and integrated quantum photonic devices for
quantum computing and quantum communications. Hon Tsang has made fundamental
contributions on the understanding of nonlinear properties of guided wave
optics in silicon waveguides, having carried out some of the first studies of
optical nonlinearities in silicon optical waveguides. As an R&D director in Bookham
Technology plc, in the early 2000s he led the development team for the silicon
waveguide variable optical attenuator arrays which were deployed
commercially in telecommunication networks. Those early silicon photonic products
enabled dynamic balancing of optical power levels during the reconfiguration of
Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) networks.
Hon
Tsang’s research on the interrelationships between two photon
absorption, free carrier absorption and nonlinear refraction, led to the
experimental realization of high net gain optical amplifiers based on
stimulated Raman scattering in silicon waveguides. These papers are
increasingly relevant in the design of silicon nanophotonic integrated circuits
because the tiny crosssectional areas of these silicon waveguides enable
nonlinear optical effects such as two photon absorption or selfphase
modulation to manifest at optical powers as low as a few milliwatts. Hon
Tsang’s current research topics include:
·
Subwavelength gratings for steering, coupling, switching, filtering
light in the spatial, spectral and polarization domains
·
Silicon photonics for
energy efficient terabit/s optical communications
·
Integrated quantum
photonics for quantum imaging
·
Hybrid integration of 2D materials
(such as graphene, MoS_{2}, WS_{2} WSe_{2} , hBN etc)
for photodetectors, modulators and nonlinear photonics
·
Integrated photonics
for 3D imaging and optical coherence tomography
Ongoing
Research Grants as Principal Investigator
Title 
Funding Agency 
Start 
End 
Amount 
RGC GRF 

31/12/2021 
$495,086 

Ultrahigh
Q Silicon Microresonators for Integrated Quantum Photonics 
RGC GRF 

31/03/2021 
$875,000 
RGC GRF 

31/12/2023 
$845,055 

Integrated
Spectrometer for Dynamic Optical Coherence Tomography 
ITF 
01/01/2021 
31/12/2023 
$4,998,739 

RGC GRF 
01/01/2022 
31/12/2024 
$838,393 





Description of RGC GRF grants are available from RGC GRF online search
Please email Prof Tsang if you are interested in joining his group. We have openings for summer research interns and PhD students and postdocs supported by the ITF Research Talent Hub scheme. Candidates with good publication records satisfying the talent hub requirements may email Prof. Tsang to inquire about new vacancies before applying,
Prof. Tsang has research grants
funding which can support candidates interested in pursuing a
PhD or MPhil degree in photonics. Please submit your formal applications to
the Electronic Engineering graduate division and CUHK before 1 December of
each year. Financial
support of MPhil or PhD students
via postgraduate studentship (PGS) of $216300 per year (202021 rates) are available. Potential students may also
consider applying for RGC
PhD fellowship which has a
higher level of financial
support (note deadline of
application to RGC is in December of each year).
Postdoctoral Researchers: Dr.Yaojing Zhang, Dr.Yi Wang ; Dr. Zunyue Zhang; Dr Hongnan XU
PhD Students: Dan Yi, David Weng U Chan, Gaolei Hu, Jiapeng Luan, Keyi Zhong, Xuetong Zhou, Yue Qin, Shuqi Xiao
Recent Alumni: Dr.Rakesh R. KUMAR, Dr Yeyu Yong, Dr Wen Zhou, Dr Xinru
Wu
1.
D. Yi, Y. Wang, and H. K. Tsang, “Multifunctional
Photonic Processors using Coherent Network of Microring Resonators” APL Photonics 6, article 100801, 2021.
2.
Y. Zhang, G. Hu, K. Zhong, W.Zhou and H.K.
Tsang, "Investigation
of lowpower comb generation in silicon microresonators
from dual pumps," Journal of Optics (2021).
3.
Y. Xue, Y.Han, Y.Tong, Z.
Yan, Y. Wang, Z. Zhang, H.K.Tsang and K. M.Lau,
"Highperformance IIIV
photodetectors on a monolithic InP/SOI platform, " Optica vol. 8
pp.120409 (2021)
4.
Z. Zhang, Y.
Li, Y.Wang,Z.Yu,X. Sun and H.K.Tsang, "Compact
High Resolution Speckle Spectrometer by Using Linear Coherent Integrated
Network on Silicon Nitride Platform at 776 nm," Lasers and Photonics
Reviews , article 2100039 (2021)
5.
B. Sun, G.Zhou,
Y.Wang, X.Xu, L.Tao,N.Zhao,
H.KTsang, X.Wang, Z.Chen, J.B. Xu, "UltraNarrowband
Photodetector with High Responsivity Enabled by Integrating Monolayer
JAggregate Organic Crystal with Graphene," Advanced Optical Materials
vol. 9 article 2100158 (2021).
6.
Z. Zhang, Y. Wang and H. K. Tsang, "Tandem
Configuration of Microrings and Arrayed Waveguide Gratings for a
HighResolution and Broadband Stationary Optical Spectrometer at 860 nm,"
ACS Photonics vol. 8 pp. 12511257 (2021).
7.
Y. Xue, Yi Wang, W.
Luo, J. Huang, L. Lin, H. K.Tsang
and K.M. Lau, "Telecom InPbased
quantum dash photodetectors grown on Si" Applied Physics Letters 118,
article 141101 (2021)
8.
Z. Zhang, Y.
Tong, Y. Wang and H. K. Tsang, "Nonparaxial Modesize
Converter Using an Ultracompact Metamaterial Mikaelian
Lens," Journal of
Lightwave Technology 39, 20772083,(2021), doi:
10.1109/JLT.2020.3047118
9.
Y. Wang, Z.
Yu, Z. Zhang, X. Sun, and H.K. Tsang, "FabricationTolerant
and LowLoss Hybrid Plasmonic Slot Waveguide Mode Converter," Journal
of Lightwave Technology 39, 21062112, (2021), doi: 10.1109/JLT.2020.3045742.
10.
Yaojing Zhang,
Keyi Zhong and H.K. Tsang,
“Raman Lasing in Multimode Silicon Racetrack Resonators,” Lasers &
Photonics Reviews 15, 2000336 (2021).
11.
Dan Yi, Wen
Zhou, Yaojing Zhang, and H.K. Tsang, "Inverse design of multiband and
wideband waveguide crossings," Opt. Lett.
46, 884887 (2021)
12.
Dan Yi, Yaojing Zhang, and H.K. Tsang, "Optimal Bezier curve transition for lowloss
ultracompact Sbends," Opt. Lett.
46, 876879 (2021).
13.
D. Yi, Y.
Zhang, X. Wu and H. K. Tsang, "Integrated
Multimode Waveguide with Photonic Lantern for Speckle Spectroscopy," IEEE Journal of Quantum
Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, 0600108, (2021).
14.
Rakesh Ranjan Kumar and H.K. Tsang, "Highextinction CROW filters for scalable quantum
photonics," Opt. Lett.
46, 134137 (2021)
15.
Yaojing Zhang,
Keyi Zhong, Gaolei Hu, Dan Yi,
Rakesh Ranjan Kumar, and
H.K. Tsang, "Submilliwatt
optical frequency combs in dualpumped highQ multimode silicon resonators"
Appl. Phys. Lett.
117, 221103 (2020).
16.
Yi Wang,
Zejie Yu, Zunyue Zhang, Beilei Sun, Yeyu Tong, JianBin Xu, Xiankai Sun, and
H.K. Tsang "BoundStatesinContinuum Hybrid Integration of 2D Platinum
Diselenide on Silicon Nitride for HighSpeed Photodetectors" ACS Photonics 7 , 2643–2649, (2020).
17.
Yeyu Tong,
GuanHong Chen, Yi Wang, Zunyue Zhang, David Weng
U Chan, ChiWai Chow and H.K. Tsang, "1.12Tbit/s PAM4
Enabled by a Silicon Photonic Transmitter Bridged With a 7Channel MCF," IEEE Photonics Technology
Letters, 32, 987990, (2020).
18.
Z. Yu, Y. Tong, H. K. Tsang, and X. Sun, "Highdimensional
communication on etchless lithium niobate platform with photonic bound states
in the continuum," Nature Communications 11, Article number: 2602 (2020).
19.
Y.Tong, W. Zhou, X. Wu and H.K.Tsang, “Efficient Mode Multiplexer for
FewMode Fibers Using Integrated SilicononInsulator Waveguide Grating Coupler”
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 56, 8400107 (2020).
20.
R.R. Kumar, Y.Wang,
Y. Zhang, and H.K.
Tsang, “ Quantum States of
Higher Order Whispering Gallery Modes in a Silicon Microdisk Resonator”
Journal of the Optical Society of America B (2020).
21.
Y. Wang, Z. Yu, Y. Tong, B. Sun, Z. Zhang, J.B. Xu, X. Sun, and H. K. Tsang, "Highspeed infrared
twodimensional platinum diselenide photodetectors," Applied Physics
Letters 116 article 211101(2020).
22.
Z. Zhang, Y. Wang, and H. K. Tsang, "Ultracompact 40Channel
Arrayed Waveguide Grating on Silicon Nitride Platform at 860 nm," IEEE
Journal of Quantum Electronics 56, 8400308 (2020).
23.
Y. Tong, Z. Hu, X.
Wu, S. Liu, L. Chang, A. Netherton, C.K. Chan, J. E. Bowers, and H. K.
Tsang, "An
Experimental Demonstration of 160Gbit/s PAM4 Using a Silicon MicroRing
Modulator," IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 32, 125–128 (2020).
24.
R. R. Kumar, X. Wu, and H.K. Tsang, "Compact
HighExtinction Tunable CROW filters for Integrated Quantum Photonic Circuits,"
Optics Letters 45, 12891292, (2020).
25.
Y.
Xue, Y. Han, Y. Wang, Z. Zhang, H.K.
Tsang, and K. M. Lau, "Bufferless
IIIV photodetectors directly grown on (001) silicononinsulators,"
Optics Letters 45 17541757 (2020).
26.
W. Zhou, Y. Tong, X. Sun, and H. K. Tsang, "UltraBroadband
Hyperuniform Disordered Silicon Photonic Polarizers," IEEE Journal of
Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 26, 8200109 (2020).
27.
Y. Zhang, Y. Yao, D. Yi, and H. K. Tsang, "Radiation
pressure and electrostriction induced enhancement for Kerrlike nonlinearities
in a nanoscale silicon pedestal waveguide," Journal of Optics 22,
article 055502 (2020).
28.
Y. Zhang, L. Tao,
D. Yi, J.B. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, "Enhanced
thermooptic nonlinearities in a MoS_{2}onsilicon microring resonator,"
Applied Physics Express 13, article 002004 (2020).
29.
Y. Zhang, L. Tao, D.
Yi, J.B. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, "Enhanced
fourwave mixing with MoS_{2} on a silicon waveguide," Journal
of Optics 22, article 025503 (2020).
30.
Y.
Wan, S. Zhang, J. C. Norman, M. J. Kennedy, W. He, Y. Tong, C. Shang, J.J. He, H. K. Tsang, A. C. Gossard, and J. E.
Bowers, "Directly
Modulated SingleMode Tunable Quantum Dot Lasers at 1.3 mm," Laser and Photonics Reviews 14,
article 1900348 (2020).
31.
Y.
Wan, J. C. Norman, Y. Tong, M. J. Kennedy,
W. He, J. Selvidge, C. Shang, M. Dumont, A. Malik, H. K. Tsang, A. C. Gossard,
and J. E. Bowers, "1.3 mm Quantum DotDistributed Feedback Lasers
Directly Grown on (001) Si," Laser and Photonics Reviews 14, article
2000037 (2020).
32.
X. Ding, B.P.Yan, W. Karlen,
Y.T. Zhang, H.K. Tsang, "Pulse
transit time based respiratory rate estimation with singular spectrum analysis,"
Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing 58 (2), 257266, 2020
33.
Y.
Jiao, J. van der Tol, V. Pogoretskii, J. van Engelen,
A. A. Kashi, S. Reniers, Y. Wang, X. Zhao, W. Yao, T.
Liu, F. Pagliano, A. Fiore, X. Zhang, Z. Cao, R. R. Kumar, H. K. Tsang, R. van Veldhoven, T. de Vries, E.J. Geluk,
J. Bolk, H. Ambrosius, M. Smit, and K. Williams,
"Indium
Phosphide Membrane Nanophotonic Integrated Circuits on Silicon," Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials
Science 217, article 1900606 (2020).
34.
Z. Yu, X. Xi, J. Ma, H. K. Tsang, C.L. Zou, and X.
Sun, "Photonic
integrated circuits with bound states in the continuum," Optica 6, pp.
13421348 (2019).
35.
Y. Tong, Q. Zhang, X. Wu, C. Shu, and H. K. Tsang, "112 Gb/s 16QAM OFDM
for 80km Data Center Interconnects Using Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits
and Kramers–Kronig Detection," Journal
of Lightwave Technology 37, 35323538 (2019).
36.
A.
Jain, N. Hosseinzadeh, X. Wu, H. K. Tsang, R. Helkey, J. E.
Bowers, and J. F. Buckwalter, "A High SpurFree Dynamic
Range Silicon DC Kerr Ring Modulator for RF Applications," Journal of
Lightwave Technology 37, 3261–3272 (2019).
37.
W. Zhou, Z.
Cheng, X. Chen, K. Xu, X. Sun, and H. Tsang, "Subwavelength Engineering
in Silicon Photonic Devices," IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in
Quantum Electronics 25, article 2900113 (2019).
38.
Y. Tong, C.W. Chow, G.H. Chen, C.W. Peng, C.H.
Yeh, and H. K. Tsang, "Integrated Silicon
Photonics Remote Radio Frontend (RRF) for SingleSideband (SSB) MillimeterWave
RadioOverFiber (ROF) Systems," IEEE Photonics Journal 11, 7202108
(2019).
39.
H.Wu C.
Li, L.Song, H.K. Tsang, J.E. Bowers and D. Dai, "UltraSharp
Multimode Waveguide Bends with Subwavelength Gratings," Laser and
Photonics Reviews 13, article 1800119 (2019).
40.
B. Zhu, M. Chen, Q. Zhu, G. Zhou, W. Zhou, N. Zhao,
and H. K. Tsang, "Integrated
Plasmonic Infrared Photodetector Based on Colloidal HgTe Quantum Dots,"
Advanced Materials Technologies 4, 1900354 (2019).
41.
Z.
Yu, Y. Wang, B. Sun, Y. Tong, J.B. Xu, H. K. Tsang, and X.
Sun, "Hybrid
2DMaterial Photonics with Bound States in the Continuum," Advanced Optical
Materials 7, article 1901306 (2019).
42.
W. Zhou, and H. K. Tsang, "Dualwavelengthband
subwavelength grating coupler operating in the near infrared and extended
shortwave infrared," Optics Letters 44 36213624 (2019).
43.
W. Zhou, Y. Tong, X. Sun, and H. K. Tsang, "Hyperuniform
disordered photonic bandgap polarizers," Journal of Applied Physics
126 article 113106 (2019).
44.
S.
Liu, X. Wu, D. Jung, J. C. Norman,
M. J. Kennedy, H. K. Tsang, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, "Highchannelcount
20 GHz passively modelocked quantum dot laser directly grown on Si with 4.1
Tbit/s transmission capacity," Optica 6, 128134 (2019).
45.
R. R. Kumar, M. Raevskaia,
V. Pogoretskii, Y. Jiao, and H. K. Tsang, "Entangled photon
pair generation from an InP membrane microring resonator," Applied
Physics Letters 114 021104 (2019).
46.
Z.
Hu, Y. Shao, X. Ouyang, Y. Tong, J.
Zhao, H. K. Tsang, P. D. Townsend, and C.K. Chan, "Experimental
demonstration of 111.1Gb/s net information rate using IM/DD probabilistically
shaped orthogonal chirpdivision multiplexing with a 10GHzclass modulator,"
Optics Express 27 ,3378933798 (2019).
47.
Y.
Gao, G. Zhou, H. K. Tsang, and C. Shu, "Highspeed
van der Waals heterostructure tunneling photodiodes integrated on silicon
nitride waveguides," Optica 6, 514517 (2019).
48.
G.
Chen, C.W. Chow, C.H. Yeh, C.W. Peng, P.C. Guo, J.F. Tsai,M.W.
Cheng, Y. Tong and H. K. Tsang,
"ModeDivisionMultiplexing
(MDM) of 9.4Tbit/s OFDM Signals on SilicononInsulator (SOI) Platform,"
IEEE Access 7, 129104129111 (2019).
49.
R. R. Kumar, M. Raevskaia,
V. Pogoretskii, Y. Jiao, and H. K. Tsang, "InP membrane
microring resonator for generating heralded single photons," Journal
of Optics 21, 115201 (2019).
50.
Y.
Gao, H. K. Tsang, and C. Shu, "A
silicon nitride waveguideintegrated chemical vapor deposited graphene
photodetector with 38 GHz bandwidth," Nanoscale 10, 2185121856 (2018).
51.
Y. Tong, Z. Hu, X. Wu, J. Liu, C.K. Chan, C. Shu, and
H. K. Tsang, "Negative
FrequencyChirped 112Gb/s PAM4 Using an Integrated Germanium FranzKeldysh
Modulator," IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 30, 14431446 (2018).
52.
Y.Yin, J. Li, H.K. Tsang and D. Dai,
"Silicongraphene
photonic devices," Journal of Semiconductors 39, 061009, (2018).
53.
J.
Liu, X. Wu, C. Huang, H. K. Tsang,
and C. Shu, "Compensation
of DispersionInduced Power Fading in Analog Photonic Links by GainTransparent
SBS," IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 30, 688–691 (2018).
54.
Y.
Gao, G. Zhou, N. Zhao, H. K. Tsang and C. Shu, "Highperformance
chemical vapor deposited grapheneonsilicon nitride waveguide photodetectors,"
Optics Letters 43, 1399–1402 (2018).
55.
X. Wu, C. Huang, K. Xu, W. Zhou, C. Shu, and H. K.
Tsang, "3 ×
104 Gb/s Singlel Interconnect of
ModeDivision Multiplexed Network With a Multicore Fiber," Journal of
Lightwave Technology 36, 318–324 (2018).
56.
D.
Dai, C. Li, S Wang, H. Wu, Y.Shi, Z. Wu, S. Gao, T. Dai,H. Yu
and H.K. Tsang, "10Channel
Mode (de)multiplexer with Dual Polarizations," Laser and Photonics
Reviews 12, 1700109 (2018).
57.
W. Zhou, Z. Cheng, X. Sun, and H. K. Tsang, "Tailorable
dualwavelengthband coupling in a transverseelectricmode focusing
subwavelength grating coupler," Optics Letters 43, 29852988 (2018).
58.
W. Zhou, Z. Cheng, X. Wu, X. Sun, and H. K. Tsang, "Fully suspended slot
waveguide platform," Journal of Applied Physics 123 063103 (2018)
59.
T.H.
Xiao, Z. Zhao, W. Zhou, C.Y. Chang, S. Y. Set, M. Takenaka, H. K. Tsang, Z.
Cheng, and K. Goda, "Midinfrared
highQ germanium microring resonator," Optics Letters 43, 28852888
(2018).
60.
T.H.
Xiao, Z. Zhao, W. Zhou, M. Takenaka, H. K. Tsang, Z. Cheng, and K. Goda, "HighQ
germanium optical nanocavity," Photonics Research 6 925928 (2018).
61.
Y. Tong, W. Zhou, and H. K. Tsang, "Efficient
perfectly vertical grating coupler for multicore fibers fabricated with 193 nm
DUV lithography," Optics Letters
43 57095712 (2018).
62.
Y. Tong, Q. Zhang, X. Wu, C.W. Chow, C. Shu, and H.
K. Tsang, "Integrated
germaniumonsilicon Franz–Keldysh vector modulator used with a Kramers–Kronig receiver," Optics Letters 43,
43334336, (2018).
63.
Y.
Gao, L. Tao, H. K. Tsang, and C. Shu, "Grapheneonsilicon
nitride waveguide photodetector with interdigital contacts," Applied
Physics Letters 112 211107 (2018).
64.
T.
C. Tzu,Y. Hsu, C. Y. Chuang, X. Wu, C. W. Chow, J.
Chen, C. H. Yeh and H. K. Tsang, "Equalization of PAM4
Signal Generated by Silicon Microring Modulator for 64Gbit/s Transmission,"
Journal of Lightwave Technology 35, 49434948 (2017).
65.
X. Wu, K. Xu, W. Zhou, C. W. Chow, and H. K. Tsang,
"Scalable
UltraWideband Pulse Generation Based on Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits,"
IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 29, 1896–1899 (2017).
66.
Y. Zhang, L. Wang, Z.
Cheng, and H. K. Tsang, "Forward stimulated
Brillouin scattering in silicon microring resonators," Applied Physics
Letters 111, 041104 (2017).
67.
Y.
Gao, W. Zhou, X. Sun, H. K. Tsang,
and C. Shu, "Cavityenhanced
thermooptic bistability and hysteresis in a
grapheneonSi_3N_4 ring resonator," Optics Letters 42, 19501953
(2017).
68.
W. Zhou, Z. Cheng, X. Wu, B. Zhu, X. Sun, and H. K. Tsang, "Fully
suspended slot waveguides for high refractive index sensitivity,"
Optics Letters 42, 1245–1248 (2017).
69.
T.H.
Xiao, Z. Zhao, W. Zhou, M. Takenaka,
H. K. Tsang, Z. Cheng, and K. Goda, "Midinfrared
germanium photonic crystal cavity," Optics Letters 42, 2882–2885
(2017).
70.
X. Wu, C. Huang, K. Xu, C. Shu, and H. K. Tsang, "ModeDivision Multiplexing
for Silicon Photonic NetworkonChip," Journal of Lightwave Technology
35, 3223–3228 (2017).
71.
S.
Wang, X. Feng, S. Gao, Y. Shi, T. Dai, H. Yu, H.K. Tsang, and D. Dai, "Onchip
reconfigurable optical adddrop multiplexer for hybrid
wavelength/modedivisionmultiplexing systems," Optics Letters 42,
2802–2805 (2017).
72.
J.
Kang, Z. Cheng, W. Zhou, T.H. Xiao, K.L. Gopalakrisna,
M. Takenaka, H. K. Tsang, and K. Goda, "Focusing
subwavelength grating coupler for midinfrared suspended membrane germanium
waveguides," Optics Letters 42, 2094–2097 (2017).
73.
Z.
Chen, X. Li, J. Wang, L. Tao, M. Long, S.J. Liang, L. K. Ang, C. Shu, H. K.
Tsang, and J.B. Xu, "Synergistic Effects
of Plasmonics and Electron Trapping in Graphene ShortWave Infrared
Photodetectors with Ultrahigh Responsivity," ACS Nano 11,
430–437 (2017).
74.
X. Ding, B.P.Yan Y.T. Zhang,
and J. Liu, N. Zhao and H. K. Tsang,, "Pulse Transit Time
Based Continuous Cuffless Blood Pressure Estimation: A New Extension and A
Comprehensive Evaluation," Scientific Reports 7, 11554 (2017).